Category: Tutorial

Photography Tips

Top 10 tips on taking better picture


Let me put forward some common ideas that may help you to improve your skills in photography.

Most important, keep your camera with you as much as possible. Keep it ready as soon as you get the smell of a good viewpoint.



Hold your camera Steady – The photographer must hold his camera steady enough to produce sharp images. Shaky hands or pushing the shutter button abruptly may result in fuzzy pictures.


Know your camera – To take good pictures, you have to become very familiar with your camera. Reading the camera manual thoroughly will surely help you to carry out the adjustments under a wide variety of conditions.


Move close to your subject(s) – Never mind going close to your subject. Whether it is a village church, your daughter’s wedding, or anything else. Always get close enough so that your frame/viewfinder holds only the most important things that you want to show/shot. One of the most common mistakes that everyone gets involved in consciously or unconsciously is not to measure the ‘real weightage’ of the frame. The ‘real weightage’ refers here the most important things that you must hold in your frame.


Correct Exposure – Before you move into a suitable ground, where photography is possible, always remember to adjust your camera setting according to the conditions, like light intensity, subject, and its distance from the camera, etc.


Direction of the Light – One of the most important factors is the direction of the light. Direct light or very bright light often make the subject to squint, as a result a very unattractive result comes out. Light from the side or even from the back is considered as a good direction of light and often produces good pictures.


BG & FG – Through the viewfinder, the photographer must notice the background (BG) and the foreground (FG) before exposing the sensor/film to the light. Cluttered BG can create disturbance to the eyes, resulting in confusion. Try to keep the picture as simple as possible.


Subject Placement – Though there no such fixed rule, but it is advisable to place your subject(s) slightly off-centre. It is believed that when a subject is shown dead-centre, it appears static and dull. But remember there is always a chance to carry out your own experiments. As I have mentioned in my last lesson that there is no such fixed rule, hence you may carry out your own perspective in taking pictures and placing your subjects into the frame.


Candid Shots – Rather than arranging your subjects like it is done in the studios, try to take the advantage of the natural moments. When people get engage, and forgets the presence of the camera, click your best shots at that time. Never make your subject(s) feel uncomfortable.


Flash-to-subject Distance – While taking pictures in flash light, the photographer must maintain the constant distance between the subject and the camera flash, so as to get the correct exposure.


Take many pictures – The potential for taking a successful picture lies behind the number of clicks per subject.  Take many pictures of a subject, from all possible angles. Always remember, ‘the cost of all the exposures per subject is far less than a missed opportunity’.


Script Writing

Developing the script is quite important as it holds the root to a good end product. But before we move into script, let us clear a doubt. Many people often mix up script and screenplay together, or which is a done first.  Make this absolutely clear that script is a very old concept, and even wider in use if compared with screenplay.  A script is a simple text formatted in dialogues, whereas the screenplay is a mix of formatted dialogues that also includes the visual descriptions. Like when & where a scene will take place, what are the props that are to be used in the scene etc.  A script can be written for a play, radio broadcast, film, etc. Whereas screenplay are mainly written where visual art is concerned. And there is no such mandatory rule that script comes before the screenplay or vice versa.

As far as I believe in case of film making a screenplay is more important than a script. The main reason behind this is the fact that a film is a visual form of art; it’s not a story or novel. Secondly a screenplay also holds a script within it. So what’s the use of doing a work twice?  Remember, time is money in film making, wasting time is simple wasting money, and in a big budget film the producer will never ever allow that. Hence start developing the habit of minimizing the wastage of time as much as possible from the early stages of your learning.

Another important part in screenplay writing is its format. Film making is a team work, bigger the film bigger the team. Many people get involved in different stages of its making, and it is very important that all those people clearly understands every scratch of the screenplay.  Right at this point a good narration/ read-through can prove very effective and helpful too.

Let us consider a very small portion of a screenplay.

The following portion of the screenplay is from the film ‘The Sixth Sense’ by M.N Shyamalan.


A NAKED LIGHTBULB SPARKS TO LIFE. It dangles from the ceiling of a basement.


Anna is the rare combination of beauty and innocence. She stands in the chilly basement in an elegant summer dress that outlines her slender body. Her gentle eyes move across the empty room and come to rest on a rack of wine bottles covering on the entire wall.

She walks to the bottles. Her finger tips slides over the labels. She stops when she finds just the right one. A tiny smile as she slides it out.

Anna turns to leave. Stops. She stares at the shadowy basement. It’s an unsettling place. She stands very still and watches her breath form a TINY CLOUD IN THE COLD AIR. She’s visibly uncomfortable.

Anna Crowe moves for the staircase in a hurry. Each step faster than the next. She climbs out of the basement in another burst of LIGHT, QUICK FOOTSTEPS.




Carefully note the following points –

  • Scene Heading (It must describe the place & timing for the occurrence of the scene, must be in capital)
  • Action (It sets the scene, describes the surrounding, also introduce the character(s) of the scene)
  • Character Name (Note that the character name has been formatted in capital letters. That’s the way of introduction a speaker must get before the scene starts)
  • Dialogues (Although there is no dialogues in the above extract, but dialogues are mainly placed in the centre of the screenplay, with the name of the speaker at first/on top of the dialogue)
  • Parenthetical (It is the mood/style of the actor in that particular dialogue. It’s written in brackets just under the character name before the dialogues)
  • Extensions (These are the technical notes that are added into the screenplay, so as to clarify the actor’s voice or may be an off scene voice. It is placed directly to the right of the character’s name)
  • Transition (It denotes how the following scene will move on to the other/next scene. It is written on the extreme right side as a scene ends)

All the above seven points are very important white drafting a screenplay. Each point has its own significance and role to play in making the film an effective one.

Written by Sourav Dutta

Cost Cutting

In case of a feature film, with proper financial support, the budget depends on many aspects, like, level of artists, director & actors to be hired. And if it’s not a digital film then the cost of linear production adds up with it. But there is one thing that is common in both low/high & digital/non digital film making, and that is the ‘tactics of cutting cost’.

These tactics may include –

  • Avoiding night scenes.
  • Use of unknown actors
  • Filming in another region/state/country
  • Avoid filming at famous/popular spots
  • Use of small & dedicated crew, minimal makeup, natural light

Remember, the concept of digital film making came into act when people started thinking about the fact that how can film making be done in a more cheaper, faster and friendlier way.

There are talented people among us, but, that doesn’t mean that every one of them was born with a silver spoon. Hence we must utilize the sources of digital film making as per our need and requirement. A big budget film can easily afford their need, but , in case of a film which has to be made under a constrain budget, we must meet the need within that budget line.

Films like Spider-Man 2($200 million), Terminator 3($187.3 million), Lara croft($118 million) are some very big budget films. It’s okay to get your inspirations from such films, but trying out something like that will be an act of a fool. Instead of making something original, you may end up with a pathetic mixed up messed up film of no value. You may find these words a bit harsh but that’s the truth. Today if you visit a film fest of upcoming directors you will definitely see some films trying out their best on sci-fi & action with lots of effects & colours. Even some of them may stand out quite good. But after all it won’t be a quality product. Hence we must get our basics right first. Simple making with strong subject is more effective than strong edit and weak subject.

Written by Sourav Dutta

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